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Features and Principles of the Optical Transceiver

Ⅰ. What properties do fiber optic transceivers have?

Optoelectronic devices, functional circuits, and optical interfaces, among other things, make up the optical transceiver. There are two elements to optoelectronic devices: sending and receiving.

A transmission laser (TOSA), a receiving laser (ROSSA), a circuit board, and additional IC accessories make up the fiber optic transceiver. The fiber optic transceiver's job is to transform an electrical signal into an optical signal at the transmitting end, then back to an electrical signal at the receiving end following transmission through the optical fiber. And we have different fiber optic transceiver types.

1. Miniaturisation

Miniaturization allows more transceivers to be deployed in the same panel, resulting in a more sensible layout. Fiber optic transceivers are gradually moving in the direction of low-cost optical transmission systems. Fiber optic transceivers are evolving towards a highly integrated tiny package in order to meet the demands of communication equipment for optical devices.

2. Low-cost and Lower-energy-consumption

The next step in the development of non-gas-tight packaging will be to use passive optical coupling and other technologies to speed up highly automated production and lower prices. Product yield and manufacturing costs are tightly controlled, and the fiber optic transceiver's power consumption can be decreased.

3. Extremely fast

With the arrival of 5G data transmission rate requirements are becoming increasingly high, modern information transmission, processing of the main pillar of the optical communication network, and constant to the high-speed rate, high capacity development, the transmission rate is becoming increasingly high, the larger the capacity, the lower the cost of transmission of each information.

4. Long distance travel

Nowadays, the remote transceiver signal of an optical transceiver can travel up to 100 kilometers without amplification, and some products can transmit up to 160 kilometers, which eliminates the need for an optical amplifier and lowers the cost of optical communication deployment. Ultra-long-distance transmission is another fiber optic transceiver development trend.

5. Hot plugging

At the moment, fiber optic transceivers on the market support hot-swappable, plug-and-play, and hot-swappable to make maintenance work easier, and even if the network is upgraded to expand the system, it will not have a significant impact on the line of users.

More information can be found in fiber optic transceiver wiki.

Ⅱ. The principle of optical transceivers

1. The transmitting part: through internal driver chip processing, drive the semiconductor laser (LD) or light-emitting diode (LED) to emit the corresponding rate of modulated light signal, its internal with the optical power automatic control circuit (APC), so that the output optical signal power maintains stability.

2. The receiving part: after the light detecting diode converts a given code rate of the optical signal into electrical signals, the preamplifier outputs the matching code rate of the electrical signal, and the output signal is normally PECL level. At the same time, if the input optical power falls below a specified threshold, an alarm signal will be generated.

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Ⅲ. The most common applications of optical transceivers

1. Switch: the most widely used at the moment, with rates ranging from 155M to 800G and a wide range of interfaces.

2. Fiber optic transceiver: 1 * 9 optical transceiver is generally used.

3. Fiber optic network card: low-rate optical transceivers, such as 100 megabit, gigabit, and 10 megabit optical transceivers, typically use 1 * 9, SFP, and SFP + packages.

4. Server: this is typically used to connect to the switch.

5. Base station: the current 5G base stations use 10G, 25G single-channel optical transceivers in the SFP+, SFP28 format.

Compatible Optical Transceiver

Equipment manufacturers of optical transceivers will encrypt their devices to varying degrees, also known as compatibility. transceivers of a particular brand can only be used with devices of the same brand, and cannot be matched with other brand optical transceivers. Compatibility manufacturers need to conduct different compatibility adaptations on the optical transceivers. Whether or not they can perfectly solve compatibility issues is particularly important.

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